1st semester review guide


Anatomy and Physiology Review Guide:


Exam 1:

  1. Levels of organization:  Cell, Tissue, Organ, System, Organism
  2. Body Cavities --- Ventral, Dorsal, Spinal, Thoracic, Pleural, Cranial, Abdominal, Mediastinum, Pelvic
  3. Anatomical Terminology:  Posterior, Anterior, Dorsal, Ventral, Inferior, Lateral, Medial, Distal, Proximal
  4. Body Part Terminology:  Buccal, Patellar, Nasal, Femoral, Phalangeal, Pedal, Pectoral, Axillary, Popliteal, Carpal, Brachial, Tarsal, Cranial, Orbital


Exam 2:

  1. Organelles:  Plasma Membrane, Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Ribosomes, ER, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosomes, Mitochondria, Vacuoles, Cilia, Flagella
  2. Phases of Mitosis:  Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
  3. Transport Across a Membrane:  Active Transport (Endocytosis and Exocytosis), Passive Transport (Osmosis and Diffusion)
  4. Types of Tissues:  Epithelial, Muscle, Connective, Nervous


Exam 3:

  1. Organ System Overview:  Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Circulatory, Endocrine, Lymphatic, Reproductive, Integumentary, Respiratory, Digestive, and Urinary.
  2. Bone Formation and Growth:  Chondrocytes, Osteoblasts, Osteoclasts, Epiphyseal Plates, Diaphysis, Epiphysis.
  3. Vitamins and effect on body:  Vitamins A, C and D
  4. Bone problems or diseases:  Gigantism, Dwarfism, Osteomalasia, Rickets, Hypertrophy, Atrophy.
  5. Haversian System:  Haversian Canal, Canaliculi, Lamellae, Lacunae
  6. Shapes of Bones:  Long, Short, Sesamoid, Flat, Irregular
  7. Parts of a bone:  diaphysis, epiphysis, periosteum, yellow marrow, red marrow, articular cartilage


Exam 4:

  1. Labeling Bone names on Diagram
  2. Bone Projections and depressions:  foramen, fossa, condyle, spine, tuberosity, Sulcus, tubercle, meatus, trochanter, fissure, head, crest, sinus
  3. Bone FracturesGreenstick, Spiral, Comminuted, Simple, Compound
  4. 4 steps to healing a broken bone.
  5. Joints/Articualtions:  Ball and Socket, Hinge, Gliding, Suture, Saddle


Exam 5:

  1. Know differences between 3 types of muscle tissue:  Skeletal, Cardiac and Visceral

Terminology:           A.  Insertion          B.  Origin               C.  Body                 D.  Tendon

                                E.  Sarcomere        F.  Flexion           G.  Extension         H.  Threshold Stimulus

                                I.   Abduction       J.  Adduction           K.  Rotation           L.  Supination

                                M. Pronation         N. Dorsiflexion       O.  Plantar Flexion

  1. Types of Muscle Contractions:  Twitch, Tetanic, Isotonic
  2. Two types of Energy Pathways to make energy:  Aerobic and Anaerobic (lactic acid fermentation)
  3. Muscle Contraction terms:  Prime Mover, Synergist, Antagonist
  4. Primary function of skeletal muscle
  5. Secondary functions of skeletal muscle


Exam 6: 

  1. Know the facial muscles and their functions/actions.
  2. Differences between cat and human muscles and why they have these differences
  3. Know the origin/insertion/action of the cat muscles we talked about in class