EMAS Scope and Sequence

Environmental Management Scope and Sequence

Human Population                                                                                                      3-4 Weeks

  • Population, resources and carrying capacity
  • Growth rates and doubling times
  • Models of Malthous and Boserup
  • Human population sizes and distribution
  • Demographic transitions
  • Age Structure diagrams
  • Limiting Factors
  • Global Economics
  • Urban development and transportation
  • Resolution policies

Human Health  (will be seen again in water and air quality)

  • Toxicology (spread of disease and density dependent factors)
  • Developed v. Developing management of disease

Terrestrial Ecology                                                                                                    3-4 Weeks

  • The location and characteristic factors of the major climatic regions to include Equatorial, Tropical Desert, Savannah, Monsoon, warm temperate climates and sub tropic in reference to air pattern movement
  • Biotic/abiotic factors which control the distribution of the world’s major biomes
  • Characteristics of ecosystems in terms of their biotic and abiotic components (soil, temperature, rainfall, photosynthetic, net primary productivity, succession, biomass, biodiversity, trophic levels, food chains/webs, habitats and niches
  • The interaction of those components to be illustrated through relative size of the flows and stores of nutrients between vegetation, litter and soil (study of the geochemical cycles included)
  • The impact of agriculture, deforestation, exploitation and fires upon terrestrial ecosystems
  • The formation of plagioclimaxes arrested successions and loss of biodiversity
  • The effects of clearing tropical rain forest for industrial and agriculture use
  • The impact of commercial farming in MEDC’s through mechanisation and expansion of fields leading to the loss of local habitats
  • Population, resources and carrying capacity

Aquatic Ecology                                                                                                         2 Weeks

  •  The effects of land, relief and ocean currents
  • The main storage zones of water and the percentages of water held in each-global, local hydrological cycles
  • The local water cycle
  • The influence of human activity upon marine ecosystems, including coastal waters oceans and corral reefs
  • Surface and ground water issues
  • Study of eutrophication
  • The study of freshwater and marine biomes (lakes, stream, rivers)
  • Marie pollution and effects on aquatic and bird life and on the coastal environment
  • Pollution of rivers and lakes by industrial spillage and river/lake pollution

Land Management                                                                                                     4-5 Weeks

  • Agriculture and Pesticides
    • Land as a resource and effects from economic development
    • Diverse impact on air quality (spraying of pesticides)
    • Negative impact on water quality (pollution of ground and surface water)
    • Management in developed v. Developing countries (green revolution)
    • Affects through biotic and abiotic factors within the ecosystem (bio accumulation)
  • Soil
    • Soil formation
    • Soil Structure
    • Soil types
    • Soil Characteristics/Properties
    • Soil Horizons
    • Soil erosion, deterioration and other problems.
    • Soil management / Conservation/Sustainability
  • Rock weathering processes and the accumulation of debris on slopes
  • Causes of mass movement
  • Human influences including deforestation and building
  • Slope management policies to include angle reduction, afforestation, drainage and surface protection.
  • Sudden mass movements such as landslides triggered by human activity and natural events.

Waste                                                                                                                          2 Weeks

  • Land as a resource (management differences b/n LEDC’s and MEDC’s)
  • Adverse affects on air (incineration)
  • Pollution of ground and surface waters
  • Impact of sewage disposal on fresh and marine ecosystems
  • Waste management in MEDC’s v/ LEDC’s
  • Ecosystem restoration (reclamation of landfills)

Energy                                                                                                                                    6 Weeks

  • Internal Structure (core, mantle, oceanic and continental crust)
  • Resource location and extraction (mining, drilling, flocking)
  • The nature of renewable, non-renewable, alternative and recyclable resources
  • Energy resources in LEDC's and MEDC's including demand and the depletion of resources in MEDC's
  • LEDC's priorities in the use of fossil fuels and the depletion of reserves of fossil fuels
  • Strategies to include sustainable use of fossil fuels through developing renewable resources and conserving energy
  • The use of alternative sources of energy including wind, water,geothermal, hydroelectric, and nuclear energy
    • Nuclear Energy Note: Interject a Case Study of the Tsunami in Japan and its affect on the Nuclear Plant
      • Briefly backtrack through earthquake and seismic processes
  • Reducing emissions through cleaning fuel gases, alternative energy 

Water Quality                                                                                                                        3-4 Weeks

  • The local water cycle includes evaporation, precipitation, interception, runoff, infiltration and ground water.
  • Groundwater stores are to include the features of natural aquifers: confined, unconfined and perched.
  • The impact of climatic change and global warming on sea and ice volumes. The impact of rising sea levels, both in the past as with ice ages and currently through the increased likelihood of flooding in low-lying areas
  • The management of water supply on a local and regional scale, including disparities in water resources, the demand for water and the supply of water

·         Management via waste controls, local and regional policies.

Air Quality                                                                                                                 4-5 Weeks

  • The importance of the troposphere for weather and human activity.
  • The principal sources, composition and effects of atmospheric pollution including:
    • CFCs and their role in stratospheric ozone depletion.
  • Carbon dioxide and methane and the enhanced greenhouse effect; to include predicted and possible climatic effects of global warming.
  • Include Volcanoes and their impacts on the atmosphere
  • Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen and the formation of acid rain including effects upon buildings, lakes, rivers and soils.
  • Ground level ozone derived from nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons.
  • Noise derived primarily from traffic and industry.
  • The patterns of urban pollution across urban areas including: pollution plumes and reasons for different levels of pollution within urban areas.

Biodiversity                                                                                                                2-3 Weeks

  • The management of areas of outstanding natural beauty, conservation area/national parks
  • The impact of agriculture, deforestation, exploitation and fires upon terrestrial ecosystems
  • The formation of plagioclimaxes, arrested successions and loss of biodiversity
  • The effects of clearing tropical rainforests for industrial and agricultural use
  • The impact of commercial farming in MEDC's through mechanization and the expansion of fields leading to loss of local habitat
  • Land as a resource under pressure from urban sprawl and economic development
  • The influence of human activity upon marine ecosystems, including coastal waters, oceans, and coral reefs
  • Methods to include national parks, afforestation, maintaining biological diversity through pollution control, better agriculture practices, ecotourism, forest conservation, wildlife management, etc
  • The impact of international protocols and research and pressure from groups such as WWF.
  • Sustainable development within conservation areas