What is a Biome
Biomes: large regions characterized by a specific climate and types of plant and animal communities.
- Biomes are described by their vegetation
- 1. Size
- 2. Shape
- 3. Color
Climate: average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time.
1. Two most important factors that determine climate:
- a. Temperature
- b. Precipitation
- 1. Two most important factors that determine climate:
1. Most organisms adapt to live within a particular range of temps and
- a. Cannot survive too far above or below their range.
- b. Biomes that receive frequent rainfall will have denser vegetation, support large trees, support a wide variety of larger animals
- c. Biomes where rainfall is not frequent will have cactuses and desert shrubs.
- 1. Most organisms adapt to live within a particular range of temps and
- Biomes: large regions characterized by a specific climate and types of plant and animal communities.
Tropical rain forests: forests or jungles near the equator.
- characterized by rain and little variation in temp
- They help regulate world climate
- nutrients are within the plants
- Decomposers break down dead organisms and return the nutrients to the soil
- plants absorb the nutrients.
Some trees support fungi.
- 1. fungi transfer the nutrients from the dead matter to the tree.
Rain forest Biomes
- different types of plants grow in different layers.
four main layers of the rain forest:
- 1. Emergent Layer
- 2. Upper Canopy
- 3. Lower Layer
- 4. Understory
emergent layer: top foliage layer
- 1. reaching heights of 60 to 70 m (197-230ft)
- a. Eagles
- b. bats
- c. monkeys
Canopy: layers of treetops that shade the forest floor
- 1. primary layer
- 2. absorb up to 95 percent of the sunlight.
Understory: foliage layer beneath and shaded by the main canopy of a forest.
- 1. Little light allowing only trees and shrubs adapted to shade to grow there.
- 2. Most plants do not grow more that 3.5 m tall. (11ft)
- a. diverse vegetation has led to the evolution of diverse animals
- * animals use specific resources in particular ways to avoid competition
- * adapted to capture prey and avoid predators.
- * use camouflage to avoid predators
- * Example: may be shaped like leaves or twigs.
- Tropical rain forests: forests or jungles near the equator.
- Every minute, 100 acres of rainforest are cleared for logging operations, agriculture, and oil exploration.
- Exotic-pet trading
- native people are threatened by habitat destruction.
Taiga: region of evergreen, coniferous forest below the arctic and subarctic tundra regions.
- long winters and little vegetation.
- growing season is about 50 days
- 1. Migratory birds
- 2. Insects
- 3. Shrews
- 4. Snowshoe Hares
- Taiga: region of evergreen, coniferous forest below the arctic and subarctic tundra regions.
Savannas: plains full of grasses and scattered trees and shrubs
- found in tropical and subtropical habitats
have a wet and a dry season.
- 1. Many animals are only active during the wet season.
- Grass fires help to restore nutrients to the soil during the dry season.
- Savannas: plains full of grasses and scattered trees and shrubs
Temperate grasslands: communities dominated by grasses, have few trees, and have hot summers and cold winters,
- most fertile soil of any biome
- Few natural temperate grasslands remain due grazing areas and farmland
1. grazing animals
- a. bison
- b. antelope
- 2. prairie dogs
- 3. owls
- 4. badgers
- 1. grazing animals
- Temperate grasslands: communities dominated by grasses, have few trees, and have hot summers and cold winters,
Chaparral: temperate woodland biome with vegetation
- includes broad leafed shrubs
- located in areas with hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters.
- located in the middle latitudes
Threats to Chaparral:
- human development.
- develop lands because they get sun, near oceans, and have a mild climate year round.
- Chaparral: temperate woodland biome with vegetation
Deserts: regions that have little or no vegetation, little rain, and extreme temperatures.
- there are hot and cold deserts
located near large mountain ranges
- 1. mountains prevent precipitation.
- Deserts: regions that have little or no vegetation, little rain, and extreme temperatures.
Tundra: treeless plain
- characterized by very low winter temperatures, short, cool summers, and vegetation that consists of grasses, lichens, and perennial herbs.
- Permafrost: frozen layer of soil or subsoil
- food chains are simple so they are easily disrupted.
Oil has been found and is being extracted from these areas
- 1. Pollution from oil spills or leaks
- Tundra: treeless plain