Hormone Problems: Give a definition of what each of the conditions are and which hormone(s) are hyposecreted or hypersecreted to cause it
Hyper-secretion Hypo-secretion Both
Tetany – hypo-secretion of Parathyroid Hormone (PTH); lack of calcium lowers the action potential of muscles leading to spontaneous, long term contraction of muscle fibers.
Dwarfism – hypo-secretion of Growth Hormone (GH) – decreases the size of an individual proportionally
Miscarriage – hypo-secretion of estrogen and progesterone – causes the inner blood lining of the uterine wall to break down and be expelled and anything attached to it is released as well
Acromegaly – hyper-secretion of Growth Hormone after epiphyseal (growth) plates have fused; can result in severe disfigurement, complicating conditions, and premature death
Goiter – hyper-secretion of TSH by anterior pituitary and/or hypo-secretion of thyroid hormones (thyroxine T4) – decreased amounts of T4 and T3 cause the anterior pituitary to release excess TSH which causes the thyroid gland to increase in size
Cretinism – hypo-secretion of thyroid hormones (thyroxine T4) – stunted physical and mental growth of individual with this affliction (type of dwarfism not associated with Growth Hormone)
Myxedema -- hypo-secretion of thyroid hormones (thyroxine T4) – expressionless face, puffiness around eyes, swelling of arms and legs, low metabolic rate
Grave’s Disease – hyper-secretion of thyroid hormones (thyroxine T4) – causes goiter, bulging eyes, irritability/nervousness, increased heart rate and weight loss.
Gigantism – hyper-secretion of Growth Hormone (GH) – increases size of individual proportionally.
Cushing’s Syndrome – hyper-secretion of glucocorticoids (cortisol) – causes a moon shaped face, rapid weight gain, “buffalo” hump on the neck, excessive sweating and lowers the immune system