Unit 6 -- Hormone Problems Answers

Hormone Problems:  Give a definition of what each of the conditions are and which hormone(s) are hyposecreted or hypersecreted to cause it


Hyper-secretion                Hypo-secretion                 Both


Tetany – hypo-secretion of Parathyroid Hormone (PTH); lack of calcium lowers the action potential of muscles leading to spontaneous, long term contraction of muscle fibers.

Dwarfism – hypo-secretion of Growth Hormone (GH) – decreases the size of an individual proportionally

Miscarriage – hypo-secretion of estrogen and progesterone – causes the inner blood lining of the uterine wall to break down and be expelled and anything attached to it is released as well

Acromegaly – hyper-secretion of Growth Hormone after epiphyseal (growth) plates have fused; can result in severe disfigurement, complicating conditions, and premature death

Goiter – hyper-secretion of TSH by anterior pituitary and/or hypo-secretion of thyroid hormones (thyroxine T4) – decreased amounts of T4 and T3 cause the anterior pituitary to release excess TSH which causes the thyroid gland to increase in size

Cretinism – hypo-secretion of thyroid hormones (thyroxine T4) – stunted physical and mental growth of individual with this affliction (type of dwarfism not associated with Growth Hormone)

Myxedema -- hypo-secretion of thyroid hormones (thyroxine T4) – expressionless face, puffiness around eyes, swelling of arms and legs, low metabolic rate

Grave’s Disease – hyper-secretion of thyroid hormones (thyroxine T4) – causes goiter, bulging eyes, irritability/nervousness, increased heart rate and weight loss.

Gigantism – hyper-secretion of Growth Hormone (GH)  – increases size of individual proportionally.

Cushing’s Syndrome – hyper-secretion of glucocorticoids (cortisol) – causes a moon shaped face, rapid weight gain, “buffalo” hump on the neck, excessive sweating and lowers the immune system